Category Archives: Reference

Tutorial #12: Understanding Metering Modes

Aside from Auto Focus, understanding Metering Modes is a prevalent issue for beginning photographers. Learning more about these settings will help you be prepared to shoot quickly so you don’t miss or screw up important shots. It’s nothing complicated, the only real issue is not knowing.


The best time to use these modes is when shooting with AV/Aperture Priority mode, TV/Shutter Priority mode or any of the other modes that don’t require full Manual or full Auto settings.

01. Center Weighted: This mode will average out the the exposure of the center of the image. This works well for portraits or close ups of objects that take up most of the image’s central area.

The reading is taken from a larger central area.

02. Spot or Partial: This mode will take a reading from a small 5% (spot) to 15% (partial) spot at the center of the frame. Some high end cameras will allow you to choose a point (usually an AF point) from which to get the exposure. Use this when you want to expose for small objects while ignoring most of the background. Good for back-lit images.

The reading is taken from a small spot in the center.

03. Matrix or Evaluative: This is often the default, but it can help you get some advanced auto metering. It allows you to use this in combination with auto focus points which I describe in detail in my last tutorial [Understanding Auto Focus]. It will take an average of the entire scene but place priority on the AF point selected.

Priority is placed on the selected focus area.

Button layout on a Canon 60D. 

The Exposure Mode screen on a Canon 60D.

Auto Exposure Lock [AE-L] Button:

This button allows you to lock the exposure taken when you half press the shutter button. The camera will not take another reading until you either attempt to change the AF point or actually take a shot. This is useful if combined with specific modes, such as spot/partial metering, so you are able to re-compose the shot after getting a reading from a small area.

The Auto Exposure lock typically looks like an asterisk.

For more info on exposure such as EV Values see my other tutorial: [Explaining Exposure]. Then you’ll be ready for my [HDR Photography] tutorial.

Tutorial #11: Understanding Auto Focus

The most often ignored or unknown settings for most beginners often deal with Auto Focus. I often see people accidentally change these settings then wonder why their camera “isn’t focusing properly anymore.” The following info should do away with all the frustration that results from just not knowing how your camera works.


The first most important thing to become familiar with are auto focus points and how to select them. The number of points and where they are situated depends on the make and model of the camera but there are a few typical configurations such as the 9 point system used on most entry to mid-range canon cameras. There is an option to manually select a point or to have the camera decide which point or combination of points to use.

You will typically see something like this in your viewfinder:

This is the dedicated Auto Focus Point Button on a Canon 60D. Although it may be elsewhere on other models it is labeled with “AF.”


The AF button will take you to the selection screen. The default setting is “Automatic”

You can then select any point you want with any of the scroll wheels or arrow buttons.


There are 2 types of focus sensors. They are distinguished by how they are able to focus. Point can focus by finding contrast with vertical lines in a scene or by finding contrast with horizontal lines. Larger max apertures on lenses will allow for more accurate focus. Most cameras will focus with any lens with a max aperture of 5.6 or larger. (there are hacks that will allow for smaller max apertures found on some third party lenses) The reason for larger apertures providing more accuracy is because the focus sensors require a lot of light to be more accurate at detecting contrast.

The vertical line sensor is the most common type. It detects horizontal lines. (once again photography names things so that you can get confused by it opposite meaning, lol.) The other, more accurate type, is the cross type sensor which detects both horizontal and vertical lines in a scene. This type can be typically found at the center point and a few surrounding points in higher end cameras.

The red crosses are cross type sensors, the blue lines are vertical line sensors.

Of course if you rotate the camera into portrait mode those vertical line sensors will now detect contrast with vertical lines instead of horizontal…


Autofocus deals with two settings and of course the Af/Mf switch on the lens. Some lenses let you adjust focus manually while set to auto others do not and attempting to can damage the lens.

01 Auto Focus Modes

The first thing to decide is what mode you should use. There is a setting for use on non moving objects and a setting for tracking moving objects.

Single shot Mode:

Canon calls it “One Shot” and Nikon calls it “AF-S” others might call it something else. When the shutter is half pressed, this setting focuses on a subject once then holds that focus.
You can put this to use by focusing and re-composing a shot without changing focus. It can be better put to use by combining it with the use of different focus points.

02 Continuous Mode:

Canon calls it AI Servo, Nikon calls it AF-C mode. Both allow constant focusing on selected focus points. This mode is best for moving objects because it continuously tracks an object to re-adjust focus should it’s position change before the shot is taken.

03 Automatic

Sometimes there will be a third setting that will automatically detect which mode to use. This typically doesn’t work very well and it’s better to choose a mode yourself. Canon calls it AI Focus, Nikon calls it AF-A.


Now that you know how to use auto focus and a bit about how it works it can really help improve your compositions and how quickly you can prepare yourself to take a shot.

Selecting ONE SHOT mode and combining it with using the center point then quickly recomposing the shot is one way to quickly autofocus on a particular part of a scene. Otherwise you can try to quickly select the point you think will fall over the part of the scene you want in focus. If you want to control of where to focus and avoid out of focus photos it’s best to manually choose your focus point.

Here are some samples of compositions and the points I selected during shooting. With enough practice, you will learn where the sensor will be able to achieve focus as well as which focus point to select for optimal sharp focus.

At times the focus points have actually influenced my compositions to a certain degree. Depending on which part of a scene i want in focus, I will tilt the camera so that a selected point falls on the subject. It’s made for some pretty interesting compositions particularly when shooting events .

Tutorial #8: Calculating Hyperfocal Distance

Shooting at your camera’s Hyperfocal Distance will allow you to capturing the maximum depth of field possible for any given aperture. This is most useful for shooting landscapes or any scene where you want as much of the foreground and background in focus as possible in one shot. For every camera film or sensor size and aperture combination, there is a distance at which you must focus your lens on to achieve this maximum depth of field. It is the closest distance at which you can focus while still keeping objects at infinity appearing to be in acceptable focus.
:( The Math Stuff:
Of course there are all sorts of calculators and apps that will do the math for you, but in case you’re ever stuck in a position where that kind of tech isn’t available it’s always good to know how to do it yourself – even for someone who hates math as much as I do…
The formula is fairly simple:

Let’s use the example of shooting at a focal length of 17mm with an aperture/f-stop of f/8 on a Canon with an APS-C sized sensor. Take the focal length and multiply it by itself [square it] then divide it by the product of the f-stop number and the circle of confusion number and add the number of the focal length. The circle of confusion depends of the cameras sensor size The chart above contains the most common sensor types, but with a bit of research you can find the circle of confusion for even point and shoots and phone cameras. The result that you get will be in millimeters so you will need to convert that to something that is usable such as meters or feet. Just move the decimal 3 spaces to the left and round it off. You will get about 2 meters as your hyperfocal distance.That’s about 6 1/2 ft.

((17 x 17) /( 8 x 0.018)) + 17 = 2023.94mm = 2.02m = 6.63ft

Shooting Tip 01:
Some lenses have markers for showing focus distance (many Sigmas lenses). However, these markings can become unreliable under different temperature conditions that can cause the parts of the lens to expand and contract. A quick trick you can use is to either measure (if you want to be very precise…) or make an educated guess of the hyperfocal distance you’ve calculated and find an object to auto focus on at that same distance. Once focused, switch the lens to manual focus to lock it.

Shooting Tip 02:
Keep in mind that shorter focal lengths and smaller apertures increase depth of field so using these can get you shots that appear in focus from close in the foreground all the way to the farthest parts of the background.

The Results:

Notice how the stuff up close is just as sharp as the stuff furthest in the back.

…mainly religious imagery not intentional lol…I just found these to be the best examples because the statues are close in the foreground…and I’ve shot quite a lot of local landmarks for work…i guess there are not really many non-religious statues around here now that I think of it…

Neutral Density Filters

Neutral Density (ND) Filters are used when you want to use a very large aperture to get heavy background blur, or to use a slow shutter speed to get motion blur in very bright light. Here’s a quick guide so you can find the right filter.

*There are also Graduated ND Filters that affect only one half of the filter to balance out the exposure in scenes like landscapes where the sky is much brighter than the ground (sunsets).